Ivan. Franko. und. das. Judentum. In meinem Beitrag möchte ich nicht so sehr auf einzelne Aspekte des angesprochenen Problems eingehen, sondern auf. Ivan Petriak. Ukrainian champion Ukraine 1 · Ukrainian cup winner Ukraine 1. Date of Birth (Age): Mar 13, (24). Place of Birth: Ukraine Smila, Cherkasy. Full Name: Ivan Tomičić. Date of Birth: Mar 1, Place of Birth: Split Croatia. Age: Height: 1,82 m. Nationality: Croatia. Position: Forward - Right Winger.
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Look up Ivan , Иван , or Iван in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Name list This page or section lists people that share the same given name.
In Ivan extended the oprichnina to eight central districts. Of the 12, nobles there, became oprichniks, and the rest were expelled.
Under the new political system, the Oprichniki were given large estates, but unlike the previous landlords, could not be held accountable for their actions.
The price of grain increased by a factor of ten. Conditions under the Oprichnina were worsened by the epidemic, a plague that killed 10, people in Novgorod, and —1, daily in Moscow.
During the grim conditions of the epidemic, and a famine along with the ongoing Livonian War , Ivan grew suspicious that noblemen of the wealthy city of Novgorod were planning to defect, placing the city itself into the control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
In Ivan ordered the Oprichniki to raid the city. The Oprichniki burned and pillaged Novgorod and the surrounding villages, and the city was never to regain its former prominence.
Casualty figures vary greatly from different sources. The First Pskov Chronicle estimates the number of victims at 60, The massacre of Novgorod consisted of men, women and children that were tied to sleighs, then run into the freezing waters of the Volkhov River, which Ivan ordered on the basis of unproved accusations of treason.
He then tortured its inhabitants and killed thousands in a pogrom; the archbishop was also hunted to death. The Oprichnina did not live long after the sack of Novgorod.
During the —72 Russo-Crimean war , oprichniks failed to prove themselves worthy against a regular army. In , Ivan abolished the Oprichnina and disbanded his oprichniks.
The German merchant companies ignored the new port built by Ivan on the River Narva in and continued to deliver goods in the Baltic ports owned by Livonia.
Russia remained isolated from sea trade. Ivan established close ties with the Kingdom of England. Ivan opened up the White Sea and the port of Arkhangelsk to the Company and granted the Company privilege of trading throughout his reign without paying the standard customs fees.
With the use of English merchants, Ivan engaged in a long correspondence with Elizabeth I of England. While the queen focused on commerce, Ivan was more interested in a military alliance.
During his troubled relations with the boyars, the tsar even asked her for a guarantee to be granted asylum in England should his rule be jeopardized.
Elizabeth agreed on condition that he provided for himself during his stay. Ivan IV corresponded with overseas Orthodox leaders.
From then on the embassy was headed by Smolensk merchant Vasily Poznyakov. After his advance was stalled near Murom, Safa Giray was forced to withdraw to his own borders.
A pro-Russian party, represented by Shahgali , gained enough popular support to make several attempts to take over the Kazan throne.
In the tsar sent his envoy to the Nogai Horde and they promised to maintain neutrality during the impending war. The Ar begs and Udmurts submitted to Russian authority as well.
In the wooden fort of Sviyazhsk was transported down the Volga from Uglich all the way to Kazan. The last siege of the Tatar capital commenced on 30 August.
Under the supervision of Prince Alexander Gorbaty-Shuisky , the Russians used battering rams and a siege tower , undermining and cannons.
The Russians also had the advantage of efficient military engineers. Kazan finally fell on 2 October, its fortifications were razed, and much of the population massacred.
About 60,—, Russian prisoners and slaves were released. The fall of Kazan had as its primary effect the outright annexation of the Middle Volga.
In Ivan annexed the Astrakhan Khanate , destroyed the largest slave market on the Volga, and had a new fortress built on a steep hill overlooking the river.
As a result of the Kazan campaigns, Muscovy was transformed into the multinational and multi-faith state of Russia. The results presaged the many disasters to come.
A plan to unite the Volga and Don by a canal was detailed in Constantinople. In Ivan launched the Livonian War in an attempt to gain access to the Baltic Sea and its major trade routes.
The war ultimately proved unsuccessful, stretching on for 24 years and engaging the Kingdom of Sweden , the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth , and the Teutonic Knights of Livonia.
The prolonged war had nearly destroyed the economy, while the Oprichnina had thoroughly disrupted the government. After rejected peace proposals from his enemies, Ivan IV found himself in a difficult position by The displaced refugees fleeing the war compounded the effects of the simultaneous drought, and exacerbated war engendered epidemics, causing much loss of life.
Batory then launched a series of offensives against Muscovy in the campaign seasons of —81, trying to cut the Kingdom of Livonia from Muscovite territories.
During his first offensive in , he retook Polotsk with 22, men. During the second, in , he took Velikie Luki with a 29,strong force.
Finally, he began the Siege of Pskov in with a ,strong army. Narva in Estonia was reconquered by Sweden in Muscovy recognized Polish—Lithuanian control of Livonia only in Except for the island of Saaremaa , Denmark was out of the Baltic by Their main purpose was the capture of slaves.
In , the 40,strong Crimean and Turkish army launched a large-scale raid. Unresisted, Devlet devastated unprotected towns and villages around Moscow and caused the Fire of Moscow.
Historians estimate the number of casualties of the fire from 10, to as many 80, people. To buy peace from Devlet Giray, Ivan was forced to relinquish his claims on Astrakhan in favor of the Crimean Khanate although this proposed transfer was only a diplomatic maneuver and was never actually completed.
This defeat angered Ivan. Between and , preparations were made upon his orders. In addition to Zasechnaya cherta , innovative fortifications were set beyond the River Oka that defined the border.
The following year, Devlet launched another raid on Moscow, now with a ,strong  horde, equipped with cannons and reinforced by Turkish janissaries.
On 26 July , the horde crossed the River Oka near Serpukhov , destroyed the Russian vanguard of noblemen and advanced towards Moscow.
The Russian army, led by Prince Mikhail Vorotynsky , was half the size, estimated at between 60,—70, men; yet it was an experienced streltsi army, equipped with modern firearms and gulyay-gorods.
On 30 July the armies clashed near the River Lopasnya in what would be known as the Battle of Molodi , which continued for more than a week. The outcome was a decisive Russian victory.
The Crimean horde was defeated so thoroughly that both the Ottoman Sultan and the Crimean khan , his vassal, had to give up their ambitious plans of northward expansion into Russia.
In , shortly after the conquest of Kazan, the Siberian khan Yadegar and the Nogai Horde under Khan Ismail pledged their allegiance to Ivan, in hope that he would help them against their opponents.
However, Yadegar failed to gather the full sum of tribute he proposed to the tsar, so Ivan did nothing to save his inefficient vassal.
In Yadegar was overthrown and killed by Khan Kuchum , who denied any tribute to Moscow. In Ivan gave the Stroganov merchant family the patent for colonising "the abundant region along the Kama River", and in , lands over the Ural Mountains along the rivers Tura and Tobol.
They also received permission to build forts along the Ob and Irtysh rivers. Around , the Stroganovs engaged the Cossack leader Yermak Timofeyevich to protect their lands from attacks of the Siberian Khan Kuchum.
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